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Force test methods and standards

Compression

Test types: ultimate compressive strength, break stress, single pellet crush, compressibility and recovery, short span compression, compressive hardness, compressive strength, flat crush (FCT), compressive deformation, pinch, push-off / push-out

Compressive burst

Test types: ball burst, bursting strength (sheet rupture), compressive burst

Compressive shear

Test types: lap shear under compression, double sandwich shear, compressive shear, laminates compressive shear stress, puncture shear, short beam shear strength

Flexure / bend

Test types: three-point bend, four-point bend, cantilever bend, circular bend, five point bend

Penetration resistance

Test types: needle penetration, cone penetration, penetration resistance

Puncture resistance

Top-load

Test types: top-load (column) crush, box crush (BCT), edge crush (ECT), ring crush (RCT)

Tensile strength and elastic modulus

Test types: ultimate tensile strength, tensile strength, elongation at break, yield point, tensile deformation, grab method (fabrics), strip method (fabrics)

Tear resistance

Test types: single rip (trouser) tear, double rip (tongue) tear, trapezoidal tear, wing tear (Winkelmann/Graves), Delft tear

Pull-off / pull-out

Test types: pull-off / pull-out, butt joint, parallel plate adhesion

Peel strength

Test types: 180 degree peel, 90 degree peel, climbing drum peel, floating roller peel, loop tack, peel wheel test, T-peel

Lap shear

Test types: shear in tension, laminates tensile shear stress, single lap shear, double lap shear

Friction

Test types: friction, static and kinetic